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物理 中英
光的本质与引力场
The Nature of Light and Gravitational Field
人类观察世界依赖于光的反射等特性,从遥远的宇宙星空到自身的DNA的具体结构。目前只能观测比‘光子’大的物体(包括雷达),这是目前的极限和瓶颈。发现比‘光子’小的物体,了解其形态和特性是个难题。光是粒子还是光波是个难题,量子物理学认为光是粒子,光学、宇宙学认为光是一种电磁波,两者都能以具体物理实践为论据。从1663年开始的“波粒战争”,几百年争论的结果是一种折衷的妥协,即光既具有波动性又具有粒子性。波尔指出,波粒二相性取决于我们怎样观察。但是这种妥协只能在光的特性上达成共识并在实践中应用。那么这个具有波粒二相性‘光’的实质是什么?物质的最基本构成是什么?我们不能永远把观测不到的物质归于‘暗物质’。既然现有的观察手段无法观测到比‘光’更小的物质,我们能否换种思路来思考这种更小的物质。
Humans depend on the reflection of light in order to observe the world; anywhere from the remote cosmic starry sky to their own DNA structure. At present, only objects larger than photons can be observed (including using radars); this is the limit and bottleneck encountered today. It is a challenge to discover objects smaller than photons as well as to understand their forms and characteristics. The problem exists whether light is in a form of particles or waves. It is thought that in quantum physics light is in the form of particles, while in optics and cosmology light is thought to be in the form of electromagnetic waves. Both theories can satisfy specific arguments in physical practice. The “wave verses particle war” began in 1663, but the outcome of the argument that has lasted for centuries is a compromise that believes light has both the nature of wave and the nature of particle. It was pointed out by Bohr that the wave-particle duality depends on how we observe it. However, this compromise can only be reached within the characteristics of light and applied only in practice. Hence, what is the true nature of the “light” with such wave-particle duality? What is the most elementary composition of matter? We cannot always attribute unobservable matters as “dark matters”. Since it is impossible to observe matters smaller than “light” with our existing means of observation, can we not change our way of thinking and consider such smaller matters?
以太的假设经过胡克、惠更斯、托马斯?杨、菲涅耳、阿拉果、麦克斯韦、麦克尔逊、法拉第、赫兹的探索发展,认为光是产生电磁现象的媒质(以太)的横振动,光的波动学说是光学和天文学的重要基石和支柱。但是,基于旧的以太理论,如果以太作为绝对静止参照系,由于地球公转,地球表面理应存在每秒三十公里的以太风,但麦克尔逊和莫雷的实验结果,得出了光与参考系无关的结论。这个实验是物理发展史上一个重大转折点。爱因斯坦也认为:“由于你无法探测出你是否相对于以太运动,因此关于以太的概念是多余的”。 虽然以太假说不仅为电磁理论所要求,而且也受到双缝干涉实验、光行差现象和斐索实验的支持,但是以太假说还是被彻底抛弃。
After the ether hypothesis was explored and developed by Hook, Huygens, Thomas Yang, Fresnel, Arago, Maxwell, Michelson, Faraday and Hertz, it is thought that light creates a transverse vibration in the medium (ether) as it generates the electromagnetic phenomenon, thus, the wave theory of light is an important cornerstone and pillar in optics and astronomy. However, based on the old ether theory, if we take ether as an absolutely static frame of reference there should be an ether wind of 30 km/s on the surface of the earth due to the rotation of the earth. However, the experimental results of Michelson and Morley revealed that light has nothing to do with reference. This experiment was a major turning point in the history of physics. Einstein also said, “As one cannot detect movement in the relativity to ether, the concept about the ether is excessive.” Although the ether hypothesis was required by the electromagnetic theories, supported by the double-slit interference experiment, the light aberration phenomenon and the Fizeau experiment, it was still completely abandoned.



 
 
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