Instrument Risk Bearing Rules of Geneva System of Negotiable Instrument Laws
本文所指的票据风险负担规则是指票据交易过程中出现伪造，变造以及无权代理等情况下，不当行为人所造成的损失，在不当行为人消失或无力清偿时，应如何在其它票据当事人之间进行分配的法律规定。 日内瓦统一票据法对此并无明确规定，或者说其法律规定并未特别着眼于这一问题，而是以票据行为理论，票据文义性理论，票据无因性理论作支持，在严格区分票据责任与非票据责任的基础上，规定了票据伪造，票据变造，票据无权代理等制度。 但从这些制度中，不难分析出其有关票据风险负担的各种规则。
The instrument risk bearing rules mentioned in this article refer to the legal provisions on distribution of losses resulted from improper actors owing to forgery, falsification or unauthorized agency during instrument exchanges among other instrument parties after the improper actors disappear or unable to make financial solvency, for which the Geneva uniform negotiable instrument law has no definite provisions or its legal provisions have no special stress on such issue but support from instrument act theory, instrument literally determined content theory and instrument non-causation theory and specifies relevant systems on instrument falsification, forgery and unauthorized agency on base of strict delimitation between instrument liabilities and non- instrument liabilities. However, from these systems, we may get different rules for relevant instrument risks bearing.
在票据伪造情形中，根据签章人负责原则，伪造人自身作为票据签章人以外的第三人，不承担任何票据责任，但必须对因伪造人的票据伪造行为而使权利受到侵害的人承担民事损害赔偿责任;被伪造人原则上不承担任何票据责任，无论被伪造人就票据伪造是否有过失，或者持票人取得该票据时就票据伪造是否为善意，对被伪造人不承担责任一事均无任何影响。 但被伪造人不承担责任并不是绝对的，在被伪造人就伪造票据成立表见代行时，以及被伪造人对伪造票据予以追认时，被伪造人应承担票据责任;票据上其它真实签章的效力不受影响。 但被伪造人不承担票据责任并非意味着其不承担票据风险。 在伪造背书情况下，根据日内瓦统一票据法第16条第1项，占有票据并能证明票据上之背书连续不中断者，即被推定为票据之权利人，如付款人已对该善意持票人付款，则被伪造背书之原权利人将无法取得票据金额之给付，由此说明对伪造背书引发的票据风险由被伪造人承担。 而在出票伪造情况下，付款人如没有发现伪造事实而进行了付款，付款人不能借记出票人帐户，即付款人对出票伪造的票据进行错误付款的风险，由付款人自己承担(但在支票领域，法律通常允许客户和银行间对伪造出票的风险转嫁于被伪造人进行特别约定)。qnryb.com
According to the signer responsibility principle, as the third Party Beyond instrument signers, the adulterator does not have to bear any instrument liability but the civil damage compensation liability to the damaged persons for its instrument falsification behaviors. As a general rule, the forged party will not bear any instrument liability, which is not influenced by the fact whether the forged party is negligent in instrument forgery or the holder is bona fide to instrument forgery. However, it is not absolute for the forged party to free from any liability. The forged party shall bear the instrument liability if it acts for establishment of forged instruments or admits retroactively forged instruments. The validity of other true signatures on the instrument will not be influenced.  However, the fact that the forged party which does not have to bear the instrument liability does not mean that it may be free from instrument risks. According to Item 1 of Article 16 of the Geneva Uniform Negotiable Instrument Law, if the endorsement is forged, any party possessing the instrument and proving the instrument endorsement continuously will be regarded as the instrument obligee. If the payer has paid the bona fide holder, the original obligee of forged endorsement can not get the amount on the instrument, which indicates that the instrument risks resulted from forged endorsement will be borne by the forged party. If the drawing is forged and the drawee can not find forgery but gives payment, the drawee can not debit it into the drawer's account. That is to say, the drawee shall bear the wrong payment risks for forged drawing (but in check field, relevant laws always allow client and banks to reach special agreements on transfer of forged drawing risks to the forged party).