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两岸经理人工作价值观比较研究(CE)-5
1.1研究意义
1.1 Research of Values 工作价值观(Work Values)为个人价值系统的一部份,其涵意是从价值观延伸而来(Kinnane & Gaubinger , 1963 )。因此探讨工作价值观之前,需先了解价值观研究的基本状况。
As part of individual value system, the connotation of Work Values is extended from Value (Kinnane & Gaubinger, 1963). Therefore it becomes necessary for us to understand the basic status of the research of value before we discuss work values. 1.1.1 1.1.1 价值观的概念
1.1.1 Concept of Values
价值观是一个使用非常广泛的概念。它一直是哲学、社会学、教育学、政治学、经济学、文学、美学和法学等等众多学科的研究对象。价值观浸透于人的整个个性之中,是指导着人的行为、态度、信念、理想的内心尺度。价值观通常是主体以自身的需求为尺度对客体重要性的认识,也就是人把什么事物看的更重要、更有意义的稳定看法和态度。此外,价值观对组织行为的研究十分重要,因为它是了解员工的态度和动机的基础,同时也影响我们对人对事的知觉和判断。而每个人在加入一个组织之前早已形成什么是应该的,什么是不应该的思维模式(彭聘龄,2001 )。qnryb.com
Values have been a widely used concept. It has long been an object of research in many branches of sciences including philosophy, sociology, education, politics, economy, literature, aesthetics and law. Values are deeply saturated in the entire personality of human and are the inner measure that guide human behaviors, attitudes, beliefs and ideals. Generally, values are the knowledge of main body for objective importance with the measure of self needs, i.e. a stable belief and attitude of what is more important and meaningful. In addition, values are vital for the research of organizational behavior, since it is the basis of the knowledge of attitudes and motives of employees and it influences our awareness and judgment for things at the same time. And before anyone participates in any organization, the mental model of what should be done and what should not have already formed (Peng Pinling, 2001).
在西方心理学领域,价值观的研究最早可以追溯到20 世纪30 年代,美国心理学家Allport & vernon 制订了一份”价值观研究量表”,进行了具有开创意义的价值观研究.到了50 年代,Kluckhohn 提出对价值观的理解:态度、动机、目的、可测量的、行为本质方面流行的习惯或传统,从操作层面对价值观的各种定义进行了整合。70 年代,Rokeach 将价值观分为目的性价值观和工具性价值观两方面,开始了从维度对价值观的分析和测量,使价值观研究更进一步发展。80 年代,以Schwartz 为代表的价值观研究者从需要和动机出发来解释价值观的深层内含。此后,人们对价值观的研究进入一个鼎盛时期,许多学者提出各自对价值观的认识和理解。
In the area of Western psychology, the research of values can be traced back to 1930s, when Allport & Vernon, American psychologists, made a Value Survey which marked the beginning of their pioneering study on values. In 1950s, Kluckhohn put forward his understanding for Values: popular habits or tradition in attitudes, motives, purposes, measurable in the essence of behaviors, and integrated all kinds of definitions for values at an operational level. In 1970s, Rokeach divided values into purposive values and instrumental values. He began to analyze and measure values from dimensions, thus advancing further development of the study on values. In 1980s, values researchers, with Schwartz as their representatives, explained the deep connotation of values from need and motive. After that, the study of values has entered a phase of peak and a number of scholars have put forward their own understandings for values.


 
 
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