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两岸经理人工作价值观比较研究
1.1研究意义
1.1 Research Significance
人类是社会化动物,群居是生活常态,物种竞争与环境演变,是不可避免的压力,种种情境潜移默化下,产生取舍、判断的信念(Kluckhohn , 1951a ) .人类因为拥有”价值观”而不同于其它生物,人类也以价值观作为互相理解、预测行为或群体认同的重要指标。
Human beings are social animals that normally live in groups. Species competition and environmental evolution are unavoidable pressure for them. Under the unobtrusive influence of various situations, the belief of options and determinations is generated inside human (Kluckhohn, 1951a). Human beings differ from other creatures for their “values”, which are regarded as an important indicator of mutual understanding, behavior prediction or group identification.
中国哲人庄子(BC369 -286 )说:“藏于内,形于外”,学者Kalleberg (1997a)也认为人类外显行为即是动机、情境、能力与态度的相乘效果,其中动机、态度偏好、需求、利益与目的等来构成工作价值观的内涵(Kalleberg , 1977b ) ,工作价值观是人们对各种人生需求之重视程度的反应,它在工作态度和工作行为起重要的作用(Buchholz , 1978 ; Pufferetal. , 1997 ) ,许多研究证实”工作价值观”与个人工作领域各项表现息息相关(crain , 1974 ; Kalleberg , 1977 :许士军,1977 ; Funderburg , 1966 ;李丽华,2000 ) ,包括个人工作规划选择、工作态度、工作满意度、组织认同、绩效表现等。Fishbein ( 1967 )曾提出工作价值观影响工作表现和工作态度的概念模式,他认为工作价值观首先塑造员工工作态度(工作满足与组织承诺),接着影响行为意图(离职或努力工作的念头),最后,将意图具体化为行动(离职、缺勤或绩效表现)。 qnryb.com
Chuang Tzu (BC 369-286), a Chinese ancient philosopher, once said, “The essence hidden inside will show itself outside.” Scholar Kalleberg (1997a) also believes that the extrinsic behaviors of human beings are the multiplied effect of motives, situations, capabilities and attitudes. Motivates, attitude preference, needs, interest and purposes constitute the connotation of work values (Kalleberg, 1977b). Work value is the response of people to the emphasis of all kinds of different life needs, which plays an important role in work attitudes and behaviors (Buchholz, 1978; Pufferetal, 1997). Many researches have proved that “work values” have a close relationship with all kinds of behaviors in individual’s work area (Crain, 1974; Kalleberg, 1977; Xu Shijun, 1977; Funderburg, 1966; Li Lihua, 2000), including personal work planning and choices, work attitudes, work satisfaction, organization identification and performance and so on. Fishbein (1967) once proposed a conceptual model of the influence of work values on work behavior and attitude. He believes that work values firstly foster work attitude of employees (work satisfaction and organizational commitment), and then influence behavioral intentions (for job-quitting or hard-working), and finally the intentions will be turned into behaviors (quitting, absence from work or performance).
经理人乃是企业的核心角色,在现今中国经济发达、人才快速崛起的社会中,各企业所引用的人才,早己广泛适用各个国家,而台湾乃和中国同源同种,在中国对台湾开放经济改革将近二十年以来,台籍干部已渐渐在中国扎根晋升为台湾经理人,虽然如此,两岸企业中的主管和下属,并没有因为长时间的互动了解而关系更融洽,因此若了解两岸经理人的工作价值观,对在中国不同的企业中,便可藉此进而提高下属员工的工作满意度、组织承诺、公民行为,直接或间接的规范员工服务态度,经理人将能力与态度转化为服务价值,企业组织即是藉着”服务价值”交换顾客忠诚度来获取利润。工作价值观、服务价值、企业利润这三者的因果关系,形成环环相扣的服务价值利润圈(Fishbein & Ajzen , 1994 )。
Managers are the core of enterprises. In the modern Chinese society with advanced economy and rapid rise of talents, competent people introduced by all enterprises have been widely applicable to all of the countries. Taiwan and Chinese Mainland share common ancestors. During the past twenty years since the opening-up of the economy of Chinese Mainland to Taiwan, the cadres from Taiwan have gradually taken root and been promoted to the positions of managers. Nevertheless, the relationship between directors and their subordinates in the enterprises on both sides of the Strait has not been more harmonious for long-term interaction. Therefore, if work values of managers are made clear, work satisfactory, organizational commitment and citizen behaviors of employees in different enterprises of China can be improved to directly or indirectly regulate service attitude of employees. Managers turn ability and attitude into service value, and it is with service value that enterprise organizations exchange client loyalty and make profits. Causal relationship among work value, service value and enterprise profit forms a close the service profit chain (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1994).


 
 
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